Articles From Volume - 01 (Issue - 03)

Open Access Category: AJFSN Total View - 324
Evaluation of Yam Paste (Amala) Produced from Composite Flour Blends of Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) and African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Flour Paper ID: AJFSN-28-11-2019-156
Abstract : Yam flour was produced and fortified with African yam bean flour at different levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% to form a composite flour. The flour blends were analyzed for their proximate, anti-nutritional and functional properties while sensory qualities were evaluated on the prepared yam paste (amala) using standard methods. The nutritional composition of the samples showed that the protein content of the formulations increased with increasing supplementation with African yam bean flour from 5.95% in 100% yam flour (control) to 18.95% in 80:20 (YF: AYBF) samples while carbohydrate decreased with increasing level of AYBF inclusion. Anti-nutrient content of the composite flour was observed to be very low. However, phytate, tannins and saponins were observed to increase with increase in the level of African yam bean flour. Addition of African yam bean flour does not significantly affect the gelation temperature of the blends while swelling capacity reduce significantly with increase in African yam bean flour. The sensory evaluation carried out on different samples after reconstitution into paste with boiling water showed that the formulation made from 100% yam flour (control) was the most acceptable by the panelists and was also significantly different (P < 0.05) in colour, texture, aroma, taste and mouldability. Consumption of Sphenostylis stenocarpa enriched yam flour could thus help combat the effect of protein – energy malnutrition experienced in the Northern part of Nigeria and developing countries across the world.
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Open Access Category: AJFSN Total View - 545
Abstract : Edible vegetable and soil samples were collected from Obanliku Urban Area of Cross River State, digested and analyzed for the cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration in them, using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) in Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar. The eight vegetables considered in the study were Amaranthus spp., Corchorus olitorius, Murraya koenigii, Ocimum grattissimum, Solanum melongena, Talinum triangulare, Telfaira occidentalis and Vernonia amygdalina. The results showed that the average amount of the metals in the soil in mgkg-1 ranged from (0.027-1.075) and (0.029-1.070) in rainy and dry seasons respectively for Co, (0.009-0.018) and (0.010-0.016) in rainy and dry season respectively for Pb, and (0.320-1.077) and (0.319-1.079) in rainy and dry season respectively for Zn. Also, the average amount of the metals accumulated by the vegetables in mgkg-1 ranged from (0.015-0.127) and (0.008-0.072) in rainy and dry season for Co, (0.006-0.013) and (0.005-0.010) in rainy and dry season respectively for Pb, and (0.021-0.209) and (0.019-0.207) in rainy and dry season respectively for Zn. The amount of Ni was not detected in the soil or vegetables. The average concentration accumulated by the vegetables and that present in the soil was in the order: Zn > Co > Pb > Ni. These values revealed that there is no significant difference between the concentration of metals in the soil or that accumulated by the vegetables in rainy and dry seasons of the year. Also, the amount of metals accumulated by most of the vegetables varies directly as the amount present in the soil where they are planted. The Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) was all less than 1. These results suggest that the concentration of Co, Pb, Zn & Ni in the soil and vegetables were still low and within the allowable limits of WHO/FAO. Thus, the consumption of the vegetables in the area at the time of carrying out this study may not pose any health risk.
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Open Access Category: AJFSN Total View - 526
Comparison of the Proximate Composition of Avocado Pear Food Spread and Fatty Acid Profile of its Oil Extract with Margarine Paper ID: AJFSN-04-11-2019-153
Abstract : Avocado food spread was formulated using avocado pear fruit (Persea Americana) (Zutano variety). Proximate analysis was carried out on the food spread using standard AOAC methods. Oil from the avocado food spread was extracted using soxhlet extraction method and characterized using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Its fatty acid profile was compared with blue band margarine as control. The margarine had a high concentration of Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (palmitic acid) concentration of 50% which is a saturated fatty acid. It was rich in 9-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (32%) and 9, 12- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (5.69%) respectively. The avocado spread oil contained predominately 9-octadecenoic acid (z)-, methyl ester (oleic acid) a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acids at the concentration of 45.69% and also 11 Octadecenoic acids, methyl ester (24.03%); Eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (13.17%), and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (5.57%) respectively. Oil from Avocado pear has a healthy fat composition and should be commercially packaged for use as a food spread
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Open Access Category: AJFSN Total View - 142
Bioactive Lipids and phospholipids classes of Buffalo and Goat Milk affected by Seasonal variations Paper ID: AJFSN-06-10-2019-132
Abstract : This research was figuring out the impact of seasonal variations on bioactive lipids content in both Egyptian buffalo and goat milk. Thirty-two samples of buffalo-milk and eighteen goat milk samples were collected and well- mixed to obtain 4 and 3 composite samples respectively. Chemical composition, total conjugated diene (C18:2) & triene (C18:3) and fatty acids profile were estimated using GC-MS apparatus. Phospholipids (PLs) were determined using 31P-NMR technique. Data detected that buffalo and goat milk contained higher contents of Butyric acid (BA) in winter than summer. Results manifested that total Odd and Branched Chain Fatty Acids (OBCFAs) contents of buffalo milk were higher during summer than in winter. Buffalo milk had higher total PLs either in summer or winter seasons than goat milk. Goat milk had higher contents of Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) but buffalo milk had higher content of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI).
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